Veterans

The Muwekma Ohlone Men and Women who served in the
United States Armed Forces from 1914 – Present Day

Background Information on the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe

In 1925, the Muwekma Ohlone Indians were erroneously declared extinct by a prominent Bay Area Anthropologist. Alan Leventhal has dedicated his life and career to correct this mistake. Here is a look at his work on writing and telling the story of Muwekma Ohlone World War I veterans, who have proved that they have never stopped living...or fighting:

In 1925, the Muwekma Ohlone Indians were erroneously declared extinct by a prominent Bay Area Anthropologist. Alan Leventhal has dedicated his life and career to correct this mistake. Here is a look at his work on writing and telling the story of Muwekma Ohlone World War I veterans, who have proved that they have never stopped living...or fighting:

I then took Rosemary to our university library (before computers) and we used index cards in oak file drawers. We found Ohlone Indians on several index cards, which also noted for us to “see Costanoan.” The most comprehensive source that we located was the monumental tome titled Handbook of the Indians of California written by eminent California anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber from University of California at Berkeley. Published in 1925 as “Bulletin 78” of the Bureau of American Ethnology of the Smithsonian Institution, Kroeber’s handbook became the quintessential authoritative publication on all of the California Indian tribes.

In his chapter on “The Costanoans,” Kroeber wrote, “The Costanoan group is extinct so far as all practical purposes are concerned. A few scattered individuals survive, whose parents were attached to the missions of San Jose, San Juan Bautista, and San Carlos; but they are of mixed tribal ancestry and live almost lost among other Indians or obscure Mexicans” (1925:464).

After reading this section, I turned to Rosemary and said to her that she must be from some other tribe because Kroeber had declared the entire group extinct by 1925. To this Rosemary responded by stating “I beg to differ with Dr. Kroeber and you, I am an Ohlone Indian, my mother was born on the Sunol Rancheria in the East Bay, and she was baptized at Mission San Jose in 1912” along with her other siblings. So rather than take issue, I asked her what kind of research she wanted to explore. Rosemary stated that her family, her extended families as well as other non-related families wanted to explore the mission baptismal, marriage and death records to see if they could trace their respective genealogies back to their aboriginal villages. I then agreed to work with Rosemary and those families who were interested in conducting such research which I have been engage in over the past 41 years.

As I interviewed various Elders of the tribe, I came to realize that much of their 20th-century history was not included in Kroeber’s handbook, including the fact that they were federally recognized in 1906 as the Verona Band of Alameda County. During interviews, the Elders remembered men coming to their houses when they were children (1920s – 1930s) asking about the Indian language that was spoken amongst them. I would later find out that the linguist who visited them in the 1920s-30s was John Peabody Harrington from the Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution.

Further discussions centered around their enrollment with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (1928- 1932, 1948-1957, 1968-1971); attendance at Indian Boarding Schools such as Sherman Institute in southern California, and Chemawa Indian School in Salem, Oregon, during the 1930s and 1940s; serving in the United States Armed Forces during WWII including the 101st Airborne, 82nd Airborne, 7th Co. 508th Parachute Infantry, 82nd Airborne Division, 41st Infantry Division, "Jungleers”, Pacific, 3rd Army, Patton’s Tank Division, 14th Mechanized Cavalry Group, 18th Cavalry Squadron, 2nd Armored Division, Co. F. 358th Engineers GS Regiment, 345th Infantry Regiment, 87th Infantry Division, 58th Field Artillery Battalion, 76th Division, 226th Field Artillery Battalion, Battery B, Pacific, 1st Marine Parachute Regiment, 3rd Marine Parachute Battalion, 1st Marine Division, Pacific, Company A, 155th Engineers Combat Battalion, Pacific, 89th Division, 1st Battalion, Co. M, 354th Infantry Regiment, 640th Tank Destroyer Battalion, 40th Infantry Division, Pacific, Army Air Corps, Pacific Theater.

After interviewing some of the World War II veterans, they pointed out that several men of their parent’s generation had served during World War I. Working with various sources, we were able to track down their service records and burial locations in the Golden Gate and Riverside National Cemeteries. I also came to realize that no military historian included the service in the United States Armed Forces spanning from World War I, World War II, Korea, Vietnam, Desert Storm and the recent conflict in Iraq. This includes not only the men and women of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe, but also from the 135 California tribes and bands that were illegally removed from their Federally Acknowledged status in 1927 by an incompetent Superintendent at Sacramento, Lafayette A. Dorrington.

The Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area Responds to the Call to War:
Part I - World War I

The following section presents those Muwekma men who served in the Army, Navy and Marine Corps prior to and during America’s engagement in Europe during World War I:

A Call to War: Muwekma Men Enlist in the U.S. Armed Forces: Army, Navy, and Marine Corps

Even before California Indians legally became citizens in 1924, prior to and during America’s entrance into World War I, at least six Muwekma men joined 17,000 other Native Americans who served in the United States Armed Forces in the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps. These Muwekma men enlisted through the San Francisco Presidio and Mare Island, and four of them are buried at the Golden Gate National Cemetery:

Antonio (Toney) Guzman, U.S. Army, Private, Battery F, 166th Field Artillery Brigade, 347th Field Artillery, 91st Division. Toney Guzman was born on March 27, 1890, either in Centerville or on the Tribe’s Niles Rancheria. He was the son of Muwekma Indians Francisca Nonessa and Jose Guzman. Toney enlisted in the U.S. Army, and he fought in the Meuse-Argonne (September 26 to October 8, 1918), Ypres-Lys, and Lorraine campaigns in France. Toney served in the Army from April 29, 1918, and was honorably discharged at the San Francisco Presidio on April 26, 1919.

The 91st Division was known as the "Wild West Division." The Division's shoulder patch was a green fir tree referring to its origin at Camp Lewis in the Pacific Northwest. The Division was deployed to France in August 1918 and fought with great distinction. In the Ypres-Lys campaign, the Division served in the Flanders Army Group, under the command of the King of Belgium. The Division was headquartered adjacent to Flanders Field. Twelve days before the end of World War I, the division, as part of the VII Corps of the French Sixth Army, helped drive the Germans east across the Escaut River. Five members of the Division earned the Congressional Medal of Honor. The 347th Field Artillery Regiment was assigned 4.7" inch guns, and the 91st Division received the following medals and campaign honors: Victory Medal Clasps: Ypres-Lys, St. Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne and Defensive Sector.

In October 1931, Toney Guzman and his brothers enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs under their mother’s BIA Application #10293. On his WW II Registration Card dated April 27, 1942, Toney was identified as “Indian”. Toney passed away on October 8, 1948, and was buried on October 12, 1948, at the Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section J, Grave 254).

Alfred (Fred) Guzman, U.S. Army, Private, Company “C,” 110th Infantry Regiment, 28th Infantry Division under Brigadier General T. W. Darrah. Alfred Guzman was born on the Tribe’s Alisal (Pleasanton) Rancheria on June 27, 1896, to Francisca Nonnesa and Jose Guzman. Prior to the declaration of War on April 6, 1917, Fred Guzman had served in the National Guard at Fort Mason in San Francisco in 1917. Afterwards he enlisted in the U.S. Army on July 28, 1917, and served in Company “C,” 110th Infantry Regiment, 55th Brigade Infantry, 28th Infantry Division. Fred Guzman and his unit Company 14, from Camp Kearney, California, June Auto. Repl. Infantry set sail for France on June 28, 1918 on the USS Lapland from New York Harbor. After landing in France. Fred’s infantry unit fought in the major battles at Ourcq-Vesle (July 28, 1918), Second Battle of the Marne (July 15-August 5, 1918), Meuse-Argonne Offensive (September 26 to October 8, 1918), and Havrincourt (October 8 – November 11, 1918) in France.

The 28th Division fought in the following campaigns: Champagne-Marne, Aisne-Marne, OiseAisne, Meuse-Argonne, Champagne (1918), Lorraine (1918). The cost in lives of these six campaigns was 4,183 casualties including 760 dead. The six fleurs-de-lis on the regimental insignia commemorated their World War I service. The 28th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army formed in 1917 at the outbreak of World War I. It was nicknamed the "Keystone Division," as it was formed from units of the Pennsylvania Army National Guard; Pennsylvania is known as the "Keystone State." It was also later nicknamed the "Bloody Bucket" division by German forces in WWII, after its red insignia.

Fred Guzman served from July 28, 1917, and was honorably discharged at San Francisco Presidio on May 31, 1919. The 110th Infantry Regiment, 28th Infantry Division set sail back to the States from St. Nazaire, France on the USS Edgar F. Luckenback on April 29, 1919, arriving at Philadelphia on May 11, 1919 with their final destination being Camp Dix, New Jersey which was used as a demobilization center for returning troops after the cessation of hostilities. Years later, on his WW II Draft Registration Card dated April 25, 1942, Fred is identified as Indian. Fred Guzman and his family lived most of their lives in Centerville and Niles. Fred died on November 3, 1961, and he was buried at the Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section Y, Grave 1059).

Joseph Aleas, U.S. Army, Sergeant, Company D, 21st Machine Gun BN, 7th Infantry Division. Joseph Aleas was born on the Alisal (Pleasanton) Rancheria on May 11, 1893, and was the son of Margaret Armija. He enlisted in the US Army on June 30, 1916. According to Armija-Thompson family recollections, he was a good horseman and wanted to fight against Pancho Villa who had led approximately 1,500 Mexican raiders in a cross-border attack against Columbus, New Mexico, in response to the U.S. government's official recognition of the Carranza regime. Villa’s troops attacked a detachment of the 13th U.S. Cavalry, seized 100 horses and mules, burned the town, killed 10 soldiers and eight of its residents, and made off with ammunition and weapons. President Woodrow Wilson responded by sending 6,000 troops under General John J. Pershing to Mexico to pursue Pancho Villa and his troops. This military mobilization was called the Punitive or Pancho Villa Expedition.

Later, Joseph Aleas served in France in the 21st Machine Gun Battalion, 14th Infantry Brigade, 7th Infantry Division (its Hourglass insignia dates back to 1918). Organized originally to serve in the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) during World War I, the U.S. Army's 7th Infantry Division was created at Camp Wheeler, Georgia on December 6, 1917, and the 7th fought in Alsace-Lorraine, France during the war. The division also served as an occupation force in the post-war period. On October 10-11, 1918 the 7th was shelled for the first time and later it encountered gas attacks in the Saint-Mihiel woods.

Defensive occupation of this sector continued from October 10th to November 9th during which the infantry regiments of the 7th Division probed up toward Prény near the Moselle River, captured Hills 323 and 310, and drove the Germans out of the Bois-du Trou-de-la-Haie salient. After 33 days in the line of fire, the 7th Division had suffered 1,988 casualties, of which three were prisoners of war. Thirty Distinguished Service Crosses were awarded members of the 7th Division. Joseph Aleas was honorably discharged at Camp Funston, Riley, Kansas on July 9, 1920, and was awarded the World War I Victory Medal and the Bronze Victory Button.

Joseph Aleas is identified on the 1930 Census as an Indian and later enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs in October 1931 >(BIA Application # 10299). On May 24, 1955, he enrolled during the second enrollment period with the Bureau of Indian Affairs.. Joseph Francis Aleas was a member of the Washington Township American Legion Post 195, and passed away July 13, 1964, and was buried at the Gold Gate National Cemetery Plot Z, grave 2597.

John Michael Nichols was a Muwekma Ohlone Indian who was born on September 29, 1893 in Niles, California, and baptized at Mission San Jose. He was the older brother of Henry Nichols and he served in the U.S. Army from 1914 to1920. John enlisted on October 27, 1914, at Fort McDowell on Angel Island. He fought in France serving with the 59th Coast Artillery Corps which was attached to the 32nd Brigade, Coast Artillery Corps (CAC). The 59th was converted to a TD (towed artillery) battalion and was engaged in the St. Mihiel offensive (September 2 – 16, 1918) and the Meuse-Argonne offensive (September 26 - November 11, 1918), and earned a Service Clasp (WWI Victory Medal for the St. Mihiel Offensive, France. John’s artillery unit was later transferred to Battery C, 67th Field Artillery Brigade, 42nd Infantry Division (the Rainbow Division) comprising 219 men, and he continued with the 67th FA when he returned back to the United States with his unit. The 42nd Infantry Division was engaged in four major operations: the Champagne-Marne, the Aisne-Marne, the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, and the MeuseArgonne Offensive. In total, it saw 264 days of combat. The 67th CAC sailed back to the U.S. from Marseilles, France on February 10, 1919 and reached New York City, Camp Mills on Long Island, on March 2, 1919 on the sized German Liner America. Private John Nichols was discharged at Fort Winfield Scott at the S.F. Presidio on June 4, 1920.

ohn M. Nichols was listed as an Indian on the 1930 Federal Census along with his son Alfred while living in Santa Cruz County. On John Nichols’s Draft Registration Card dated April 27, 1942, he was identified as residing at the Veteran’s Home in Napa (Yountville), California, where he had resided from 1941 to 1953. John Nichols died on April 21, 1968 while living in Stockton, California, and he was buried in the veterans section of the Highland View Memorial Gardens, near the Town of Farmington, San Joaquin County

Henry Abraham Lincoln Nichols, U.S. Navy, Fireman 1st Class, Battleships USS Arizona and USS Oklahoma. Henry Nichols was born in Niles on February 12, 1895, to Charles Nichols and Muwekma Ohlone Susanna Flores Nichols. Henry enlisted on May 23, 1917, and first served on the USS Albatross. By December 31, 1917, he was transferred to the Battleship USS Arizona, and later on March 26, 1918, he was transferred again to the Battleship USS Oklahoma. During World War I Henry Nichols served in the North Atlantic and was on escort duty in December 1918 when the Oklahoma was serving as escort during President Woodrow Wilson’s arrival in France at the end of the war (November 11, 1918). The Oklahoma returned to Brest, France on June 15, 1919, to escort President Wilson back home who was transported on the USS George Washington during his second visit to France. Henry Nichols was honorably discharged at Mare Island on August 14, 1919, and was issued the World War I Victory Medal. On Henry Nichols’ WW II Draft Registration Card dated April 27, 1942, he is identified as Indian. Henry Nichols passed away on January 5, 1956, and was buried at the Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section L-5, Grave 7455).

Franklin P. Guzman (Service # 87843) Sergeant, U.S. 2 nd Marine Corps Division, 4 th Marine Infantry Brigade, 6th Machine Gun Battalion, “D” Company, 81st Company. Franklin was born on the Alisal Rancheria on January 15, 1898, and was the son of Pleasanton Indians Teresa Davis and Ben Guzman (who later died in 1907). He was also the nephew of Toney and Fred Guzman. Franklin was listed on the 1910 Federal Indian Population Census at “Indian Town”, Pleasanton Township.

He enlisted on October 20, 1916, while working near Sacramento, reported for duty on October 25, 1916, and was assigned to Company “B” Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, Mare Island. On May 28, 1917, Franklin was promoted to the rank of Corporal. By March 31, 1918, he earned an Expert Rifleman Badge and a Marksman Badge and by April he was assigned to the 111th Company, 8th Regiment. In May, Franklin was transferred to the 150th Company, 1 st Machine Gun Replacement Battalion at Quantico, Virginia, and he was promoted to Sergeant on May 22, 1918.

The 1st Machine Gun Replacement Battalion sailed on May 26, 1918, on the USS Henderson and disembarked in France on June 8, 1918. The 1st Machine Gun Battalion was later renamed the 6th Machine Gun Battalion in France. From September 12th - 16th, 1918 the brigade was engaged in the St. Mihiel offensive in the vicinity of Remenauville, Thiaucourt, Xammes, and Jaulny. On September 16, 1918, Franklin Guzman was wounded in the left thigh, and from September through December he was placed in various Field and Base Hospitals in France, and finally transferred back to the States on December 16, 1918. Franklin remained in recovery at the US Navy Hospital at Norfolk, Virginia until he was honorably discharged from service as a Sergeant on June 27, 1919.

In a Pleasanton Cal Times newspaper article dated October 19, 1918, reported on the status of Franklin Guzman who was wounded in the thigh. That article noted that:

Guzman was raised and educated in Pleasanton. For a while he was employed at the Hearst Ranch. At the outbreak of hostilities with Mexico he enlisted in Company I, 5th [Infantry] Regiment of the California National Guard. He saw service on the Mexican border. When his company returned Guzman went to Mare Island where he joined the Marines. He was among the first to be sent to France

Company I, 5th Infantry Regiment, Second Brigade, was originally organized and mustered in 1900 in Livermore, Alameda County. The Regiment was mustered out on June 15, 1916, and reorganized and mustered on June 21, 1916. It was mustered into Federal Service on June 28, 1916 as a response to the Pancho Villa incursions into the United States. On October 7, 1916 the regiment was mustered out of Federal Service, and resumed service in the National Guard. The regiment was once again mustered into Federal Service at the U.S. Declaration of War against Germany on April 7, 1917, and later was redesignated Company A, 159th Infantry Regiment on September 24, 1917 (Information derived from Adjutant General’s Files, History of the Company I, 5th Infantry Regiment, National Guard 1900-1917 by WPA 1940).

Franklin was discharged from the National Guard, and shortly afterwards while working near Sacramento he enlisted in the Marine Corps on October 20, 1916, He reported for duty on October 25, 1916, and was assigned to Company “B” Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, Mare Island. On May 28, 1917, Franklin was promoted to the rank of Corporal. By March 31, 1918, he earned an Expert Rifleman Badge and a Marksman Badge and by April he was assigned to the 111th Company, 8th Regiment. In May, Franklin was transferred to the 150th Company 1st Machine Gun Replacement Battalion at Quantico, Virginia, and he was promoted to Sergeant on May 22, 1918. The 1st Machine Gun Replacement Battalion sailed on May 26, 1918, on the USS Henderson and disembarked in France on June 8, 1918. The 1st Machine Gun Battalion was later renamed the 6 th Machine Gun Battalion in France. From September 12 to 16, 1918 the brigade was engaged in the St. Mihiel offensive in the vicinity of Remenauville, Thiaucourt, Xammes, and Jaulny.

In above cited October 19, 1918 news article, it noted the following about Franklin Guzman’s injury:

Word was received in Pleasanton Thursday to the effect that Sergeant Frank Guzman of the United States Marine Corps a former Pleasanton boy, had been seriously wounded while in action. The first report was to the effect that Guzman had been killed, but later news said that he had been seriously wounded.

On September 16, 1918, Franklin Guzman was wounded in the left thigh, and from September through December he was placed in various Field and Base Hospitals in France, and finally transferred back to the States on December 16, 1918. Franklin remained in recovery at the US Navy Hospital at Norfolk, Virginia until he was honorably discharged from service at the rank of Sergeant on June 27, 1919. Franklin’s Battalion was engaged in the Chateau-Thierry sector (capture of Hill 142, Bouresches, Belleau Wood) from June to July, 1918; Aisne-Marne (Soissons) offensive from July 18 to July 19, 1918; Marbache sector, near Pont-a-Mousson on the Moselle River from August 9 to August 16, 1918; St. Mihiel from September 12 to September 16, 1918; and later the Meuse-Argonne offensive (October 1 to 10, 1918, and November 1 to 10, 1918). He was issued World War I Victory Medal with one Silver Star, Army of Occupation of Germany Medal, and the French Croix Guerre/Fourragere of the Croix de Guerre lanyard. Franklin passed away on May 30, 1979, and was buried in the Riverside National Cemetery (Section 8, Grave 2826).

The Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area Responds to the Call to War: Part II - World War II

Muwekma Men Again Answer the Call to War:

During World War II, almost all of the Muwekma men served in the United States Armed Forces both in the Pacific, European and North African theaters and stateside. Five brothers, sons of Tribal leader, Dolores Marine Alvarez Piscopo Galvan enlisted in the Armed Forces (Note: some unit and combat details derived from on-line and other published sources)..

Hank A. Alvarez, Pfc. U.S. Army, 101st Airborne Division landed Utah Beach Normandy. Hank was born on February 27, 1922 in Santa Cruz, California. He spent his childhood growing up in Santa Cruz, Alvarado and Brentwood near the Sacramento Delta. While living in Brentwood, on March 18, 1932, his mother Dolores Marine enrolled herself and all her children with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA Application # 10681).

Hank enlisted at the San Francisco Presidio, and served from December 28, 1942 to December 15, 1945, and he later was assigned to the 101st Airborne Division at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana. While serving in the 101st Airborne Division he landed at Utah Beach in Normandy, he was later reassigned to the 106th Infantry Division, 423rd Infantry Regiment, Company B, and his unit continued to fight in France, Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany. His regiment saw action at Saint Laurent sur Mer and Saint Nazaire, France, and near Malmedy, Belgium. Later, Hank was reassigned back to the 326th Airborne Engineer Battalion (also activated at Camp Claiborne) during the Battle of the Bulge at Bastogne, and at the Ramagen Bridge crossing the Rhine River in Germany. After landing in Europe Hank’s unit fought in the following campaigns with the 101st Airborne Division: Ardennes, Rhineland (GO 40 WD 45), and Northern France (GO 33 WD 45).Hank was issued the following medals and badges: Sharpshooter M1, WWII Victory Medal, and European African Middle East Campaign Medal. The 101st Airborne Division and the 106th Infantry Division earned Presidential Unit Citations. Hank was honorably discharged at Camp Beale, California on December 15, 1945. Hank returned home from Europe with the 82nd Medical Battalion, 12th Armored Division.

After the war, on April 26, 1950, Hank enrolled himself and his family with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) during the second enrollment period. During the early 1960s Hank served in a leadership position along with his brothers and sister to save the Tribe’s Ohlone Indian Cemetery located by Mission San Jose from destruction. Hank had served on the Muwekma Tribal Council since 1992 and is presently the oldest surviving member of the Verona Band of Alameda County and oldest veteran in the Tribe.

John (Johnnie) Abraham Alvarez was the older brother of Hank Alvarez. John Alvarez was born on May 24, 1914 in San Jose, and spent most of his life living in Santa Cruz. He was enrolled with his siblings with the BIA in March 1932. John enlisted in U.S. Army on October 22, 1941 just prior to America’s Declaration of War against Japan, Germany and Italy and his rank was Private First Class (PFC) in the U.S. Army Air Corps, and he served in the Pacific Theater. A letter was sent to his mother, Dolores Marine Alvarez Piscopo Galvan, that her son John while serving overseas was missing in action, however, although the details are now clouded, he was either liberated, or saved from, Japanese internment, and he continued to serve. John was honorably discharged on November 20, 1945, and received the American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, WWII Victory Medal, and Honorable Service Lapel Button WWII. John Alvarez died on March 6, 2002.

Francis Salvador “Sal” Samuel Dominic Piscopo, Sergeant Technical [E-7] U.S. Army, European Theater. Salvador was born in San Jose on October 1, 1923 and was a younger brother of Hank and John Alvarez. He went by the name of Samuel Dominic by the time he enlisted in the US Army. Sal was enrolled on March 18, 1932 with the Bureau of Indian Affairs with his siblings under his mother Dolores Marine’s BIA Application # 10681. Sal spent his younger years living in San Jose and Brentwood.

Sal enlisted in the U.S. Army on January 25, 1943. He attained the rank of Sergeant Technical (E-7) and served in the 14th Mechanized Cavalry Group, 18th Cavalry Squadron. On August 28, 1944, the 14th Cavalry Group sailed for Europe, where it landed on Omaha Beach on September 30 and pressed east. On October 18, 1944, the unit was split into the 18th Squadron, attached to the 2nd Infantry Division, and the 32nd Squadron, attached to the 83rd Infantry Division. The unit regained its autonomy on December 12, 1944, and began guarding the Losheim Gap in Belgium. On December 16, the 14th Cavalry Group received the full brunt of the German winter counteroffensive in the Battle of the Bulge. After two days of savage fighting, the unit reassembled at Vielsam, Belgium, and was attached to the 7th Armored Division.

On December 23, the unit secured the southern flank of the perimeter, which allowed friendly troops to withdraw to safety. On December 25, the unit was reequipped, attached to the XVIII Airborne Corps, and moved back into the Bulge to push back the German Army. After the bloody and brutal fight in the Ardennes, the regiment was assigned to the 3rd US Army.

Post 2nd Infantry Division
Post 7th Armored Division
Post XVIII Airborne Corps
Post 3rd Army

In December 1944, the 18th Cavalry Squadron was “chopped” to the 106th Infantry Division still in that sector. The tasks for these squadrons were the traditional cavalry missions of screening to the front and reconnaissance. On December 12, the 32nd Squadron was returned to Group control and passed lines to the rear for refitting. The 18th Squadron also retuned to Group control but continued its mission in the Ardennes region of Belgium.

At 0630 on December 16, 1944, Von Rundstedt launched the final German bid for victory - the now famous ‘Ardennes Offensive’ or better known as the ’Battle of the Bulge’. After a terrific artillery and rocket barrage designed to destroy communications and disrupt the U.S. Army’s organization, the German attack was launched. The full weight of this drive was felt early that morning when more than half of the 18th Cavalry Squadron became surrounded, and were captured or killed by 10:00 hours.

Patton’s 3rd Army Division had begun the Lorraine Campaign by August 1944 and reached the Moselle River near Metz, France. By December 1944, Salvador’s tank division turned north to relieve the surrounded and besieged 101st Airborne Division at Bastogne in the Ardennes during the Battle of the Bulge. By February 1945 the 3rd Army moved into the Saar Basin in Germany, and later crossed the Rhine River at Oppenheim on March 22, 1945.

On Salvador Piscopo’s uniform at the time when his photograph was taken, he had four service bars representing two years of overseas service and also one three-year reenlistment service stripe. Sal was wounded when his tank was hit by German anti-tank fire. He carried shrapnel in his chest all of his life. He also was captured by the Germans, and was issued a medal with five Bronze Service Stars, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign, Good Conduct Medal and World War II Victory Medal. Sal’s unit was engaged in the Rhineland (September 15, 1944 to March 21, 1945), Ardennes-Alsace (December 16, 1944 to January 25, 1945), and Central Europe (March 22 to 11 May 11, 1945) Campaigns. He was hospitalized after being liberated, as well as after he was discharged from the service. His brother Hank Alvarez said that Sal’s nickname was “Fade Away” meaning that “no one can find him, … one day he’s around and then he would be gone for weeks, and then show up again.” Sal was discharged at Camp Beale in 1945. Salvador died on September 21, 1968 and is buried in the Disabled Veterans section of Oak Hill Cemetery in San Jose, California.

Felipe “Phil” Galvan, Pvt. US Army, Fort Benning, Georgia. Philip was born in September 1926 in Alvarado, Alameda County, and was the younger brother of Hank Alvarez and Sal Piscopo. He was enrolled along with his siblings with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his mother Dolores Marine’s BIA Application # 10681. Phil enlisted in the U.S. Army on April 13, 1944, and was sent to the Monterey Presidio, and afterwards he was stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia. Fort Benning was the home of the 2nd Armored Division called “Hell on Wheels.” At Ft. Benning the core units of the 2nd Armored Division were the 41st Armored Infantry Regiment, the 66th Armored Regiment, the 67th Armored Regiment, the 17th Armored Engineer Battalion, the 82nd Armored Reconnaissance Battalion, and the 142nd Armored Signal Company. The 2nd Armored had three artillery battalions (the 14th, 78th, and 92nd). The Division also had support units, including the 2nd Ordnance Maintenance Battalion, a Supply Battalion, the 48th Armored Medical Battalion, and a Military Police Platoon. Some of the units were attached to the 41st Infantry Division in Europe. Philip was honorably discharge at Camp Beale in 1946.

During the early 1960s Philip and his siblings were responsible for protecting the Tribe’s Ohlone Indian Cemetery from destruction. Later, Philip joined the editorial board of the American Indian Historical Society’s Indian Historian publication journal. He also served as the Secretary for the Ohlone Indian Tribe from 1965 to 1971. Phil Galvan was the caretaker of the Tribe’s Ohlone Indian Cemetery, located near Mission San Jose. On June 13, 1982, Phil and his brother Ben Galvan laid the cornerstone for the widely acclaimed reconstruction of the 1809 Mission San Jose adobe Church. Philip Passed away on March 25, 2013 at the age of 87 years, and was buried in the Ohlone Indian Cemetery.

“Ben” Michael Benjamin Galvan, Merchant Marines, U.S. Navy – (USS Enterprise), U.S. Army and Army Air Corps. Ben was born on June 23, 1927 in Alvarado and was the last “formal” member of the Federally Recognized Verona Band of Alameda County. In March 1932, he was enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs under his mother Dolores Marine Alvarez Piscopo Galvan’s BIA Application # 10681. After serving in the Merchant Marines because he was under aged, he transferred and served in the Navy on board the USS Enterprise.

The USS Enterprise participated in nearly every major engagement of the war against Japan, including the Battle of Midway, the Battle of the Eastern Solomons, the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands, various other air-sea actions during the Battle of Guadalcanal, the Battle of the Philippine Sea, and the Battle of Leyte Gulf, as well as participating in the "Doolittle Raid" on Tokyo. USS Enterprise has the distinction of earning 20 battle stars and a Presidential Unit Citation, the most for any U.S. warship in World War II. Ben Galvan was awarded six Battle Stars and a Purple Heart. After being injured during combat on the USS Enterprise, Ben requested to be transferred to the U.S. Army/Army Air Corps. At the end of his service, he reenlisted in the service on January 15, 1946 at Camp Beale, Marysville, California. On December 4, 1951 Ben enrolled himself and his family during the second Bureau of Indian Affairs enrollment period.

During the early 1960s he was involved is saving the Ohlone Indian Cemetery from destruction and in 1965 Ban became the first chairman of the Ohlone Tribe. Ben served as the chairman of the Ohlone Tribe for thirteen years from 1965 to 1978. Ben Galvan passed away on April 13, 1987

Thomas Joseph Garcia, Pfc. U.S. Army, Co. F. 358th Engineers GS Regiment. Joseph Garcia was born on December 12, 1912 on the Alisal Rancheria near Pleasanton. Both his mother Mercedes Marine and his father Joseph Armijo Garcia were Muwekma Ohlone Indians. After the death of his mother in 1914, Joseph was adopted by his godmother Phoebe Inigo Alaniz who was also a member of the Verona Band Indian Community. He enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs with his step-mother Phoebe Alaniz on October 7, 1930 (Application # 10301) and lived most of his life in Livermore, California.

Thomas Garcia enlisted on July 30, 1942 at the San Francisco Presidio, and he served until November 1945. On January 10, 1943 the 358th Engineers Regiment was activated at Camp Claiborne, Louisiana and they departed the U.S. for Europe on July 1, 1943. The Regiment landed in France on August 24, 1944. Twelve days earlier on August 12, 1944, General Patton demanded railroad reconstruction from Folligny to Le Mans to carry gasoline in his dash toward Paris, the pipeline was designed to bring bulk Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants (POL) forward from the ports in support of the American advancement.

The 358th Engineers Regiment eventually crossed into Belgium November 27, 1944 and arrived at Antwerp, Belgium. The great port at Antwerp was miraculously in good condition, thanks to the speed of the British advance, and Belgian success in forestalling German attempts at its demolition. The largest single engineer element of the 13th Port in Antwerp was the 358th Engineer General Service Regiment; other engineer support included two depot and two petroleum distribution companies and two of the five engineer port repair ships in the European Theater. Later, the V-1 and V-2 rockets that the Germans sent over Antwerp beginning in midOctober 1944 inflicted surprisingly little damage at first, but in mid-December, at the start of the Battle of the Ardennes, rocket attacks on the city intensified.

Between December 11 and 29, 1944, thirty men of the 358th Engineer General Service Regiment were wounded by V-bomb attacks, twenty-nine seriously; one died of wounds. On Saturday afternoon, December 16, a V-2 bomb scored a direct hit on the Rex movie theater, killing 567 soldiers and civilians and seriously injuring 291. The 358th Engineers took over rescue and demolition operations and persevered until the last body was recovered on December 22.

Thomas Garcia and his regiment were engaged in the Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, and Central Europe Campaigns. He was honorably discharge on November 27, 1945. On April 22, 1953, he enrolled during the second BIA enrollment period. Thomas Garcia passed away on February 9, 1956 and was buried Golden Gate National Cemetery (Section Q, Grave 59).

Ben Lewis (Angel) Guzman, Pfc. U.S. Army. Bennie Guzman was born on October 2, 1920 in Pleasanton, California. His father was Fred Guzman who had served in the 28th Infantry Division during WW I. Ben enlisted on November 5, 1942 at San Francisco Presidio. He first went to Camp Niles, and then onto Camp White, Oregon, and was assigned to Company B, 362nd Infantry Regiment, 91st Infantry Division and served in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy campaigns during the war. The 361st, 362nd and 363rd Infantry Regiments were organic elements of the 91st Infantry Division.

The 91st Division was activated in 1942 and landed in Italy in June 1944. During the rest of the war it participated in the Anzio, Rome-Arno, North Apennines (the Gothic and Caesar Lines) and Po Valley campaigns. After the end of the war the Division was on occupation duty near Trieste until August 1945 when it returned to the U.S. Like his uncle Toney Guzman who also served in the 91st Infantry Division during WW I, Ben Guzman’s enlistment record identifies him as an “American Indian, Citizen.” Ben attained the rank of Private First Class, and was discharged on January 9, 1946 at Camp Beale, California. He was issued the Bronze Star, Combat Infantry Badge, World War II Victory Medal, WW II Lapel Button, European/African/Middle Eastern Campaign Theater Medal [Anzio - January 22 - May 9, 1944; Rome/Arno between January 22 - September 9, 1944; Northern Apennines -September 10, 1944 - April 4, 1945]. Ben Guzman died on March 11, 1995 and he is buried in the San Joaquin National Cemetery in Gustin, Ca. (Section C-3 Site 517).

Frank Harry Guzman, Pfc. U.S. Army. Frank was the younger brother of Ben Guzman, and he was born on April 2, 1926 in Pleasanton. Muwekma Ohlone Indians Dario Marine and Cecelia Armija Marine were his godparents. Frank and his brother Ben were photographed with their uncle Toney Guzman by anthropologist C. Hart Merriam in September 1934.

Frank’s enlistment record identifies him as an “American Indian, citizen” and that he enlisted at the San Francisco Presidio. Frank served from July 21, 1944 to June 1946 as a Light Machine Gunner in the unattached 345th Infantry Regiment, 87th Infantry Division that was during the war assigned to the 3rd Corps, 8th Corps, 12th Corps of General Patton's 3rd Army (25 Nov 1944), 15th Corps of the 7th Army, 8th Corps of the 1st Army and the 8th Corps of the 9th Army during the European Theater of Operations (October 1944 - May 1945). Frank was also briefly assigned to the 82nd Airborne Division, and received his Parachute Badge.

On December 15, 1944, the 345th Infantry Regiment was in the vicinity of Rimling, France, and by December 17th the regiment took the town of Medelsheim, Germany. By December 26th the Germans had broken through the American defenses along the German-Belgian border between Malmedy, Belgium and Echternach, Luxembourg, and created a fifty-five mile salient through the Ardennes Forest. The 345th Infantry Regiment was sent to the Cathedral city of Rheims to prevent a German breakthrough there, and by December 28th the regiment was reassigned to General Patton's 3rd Army. On December 29th the 345th Infantry Regiment was again on the road bound for an assembly area in the Luchie Woods 19 kilometers southwest of Moircy, Belgium.

The Battle of the Bulge which lasted from December 16, 1944 to January 28, 1945 was the largest land battle of World War II in which the United States participated. More than a million men fought in this battle including some 600,000 Germans, 500,000 Americans, and 55,000 British. At the conclusion of the battle the casualties were as follows: 81,000 U.S. with 19,000 killed, 1,400 British with 200 killed, and 100,000 Germans killed, wounded or captured.

Frank was engaged in the Rhineland and Central Europe campaigns. He received the Army Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon, Combat Infantry Badge, European Africa and Middle Eastern Campaign Medal (Three Bronze Stars for Campaigns), Good Conduct Medal, American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Army of Occupation Medal (Berlin), Parachute Badge, Marksman Badge for Machine Gun and Rifle. Frank was honorably discharged at Camp Beale, California on June 27, 1946. Frank Guzman was a member of the V.F.W. Post No. 1537 of Tracy, California. He died on March 17, 1982

Ernest Paul Marine, Pfc. U.S. Army, 58th Armored Field Artillery Battalion. Ernest Marine was the son of Muwekma Ohlone Indians Lucas Marine and Catherine Peralta. He was born on January 26, 1926 in Centerville. He was enrolled with his father with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on January 11, 1930 (BIA Application # 10299) and his mother had filled out a separate BIA enrollment (Application # 10675). His father Lucas Marine had identified his mother (Avelina Cornates Marine) and Ernest’s mother (Catherine Peralta Marine) as “Ohlones” on his BIA Application.

Ernest Marine enlisted on April 13, 1944 at the Monterey Presidio. On June 6th 1944 (D-Day), the 58th was ordered to land on Omaha Beach in support of the 116th Combat Team, and the 2nd and 5th Ranger Battalions. Ernest served in Europe in the unattached 58th Armored Field Artillery Battalion self-propelled 105 Howitzers, temporarily attached to the 29th Infantry Division, V Corps and XIX Corps, and he fought in the Rhineland (September 15, 1944 – March 21, 1945), Ardennes-Alsace (Battle of the Bulge, Bastogne, Belgium, December 16, 1944 – January 25, 1945) and Central Europe Campaigns(March 22, 1945 – May 11, 1945). Ernest enrolled with his father Lucas Marine during the second BIA enrollment period on December 23, 1950. Ernest Marine was honorably discharged at Camp Beale on June 15, 1946. After the war Ernest spent most of his life living with his aunt Trina Thompson Ruano in Newark, California, and he passed away on October 20, 1977 in Sacramento.

Filbert S. Marine, Technician Fifth Grade (T/5 or TEC 5, U.S. Army, Pacific Theater. Filbert was the last child born on the Alisal Rancheria near Pleasanton and Sunol on December 31, 1915. Both of his parents Dario Marine and Catherine Peralta were Muwekma Ohlone Indians. His godparents were also Muwekma Ohlone Indians Franklin Guzman who served in the Marine Corps during WWI and Francisca Guzman. Filbert and his siblings were enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on their father’s BIA Application # 10677 on March 11, 1932.

Filbert enlisted in the Army on February 18, 1942 at the Presidio of Monterey. His enlistment record identifies him as “American Indian, citizen.” He fought in the Pacific Theater and was assigned to the 226th Field Artillery Battalion, Battery B. His unit was assigned to XXIV Corps during the Battle of Leyte in the Philippines. The Marines that took part in the Leyte landings were elements of the VAC Artillery, which had been attached to the XXIV Corps earlier in 1944, while still at Hawaii. The V Amphibious Corps (VAC) was a formation of the United States Marine Corps and was composed of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Marine Divisions during World War II. They were the amphibious landing force for the United States Fifth Fleet and were notably involved in the battles for Tarawa and Saipan in 1944, and the Battle of Iwo Jima in 1945.

The Marine complement consisted of the 5th 155mm Howitzer Battalion; the 11th 155mm Gun Battalion, and Headquarters Battery. Army field artillery battalions in the XXIV Corps were the 198th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Howitzer), the 226th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm Gun), and the 287th Field Artillery Battalion (Observation).

The Marine artillery elements assigned to the XXIV Corps, as well as the 226th Field Artillery Battalion had been formed from former seacoast artillery units; though familiar with heavy artillery, the men had received only rudimentary field artillery training. Prior to the departure of these units from Hawaii, the Marine artillery had undergone intensive field artillery training. Embarkation of personnel from Hawaii was accomplished between September 6 – 14, 1944.

The island of Leyte, lying in the Visayas Group of the Central Philippines, is 115 miles in length and varies in width from 15 to 40 miles. The main mountain range runs the entire length of the island from north to south, leaving a wide coastal plain along the east coast. The Sixth Army troops for Operation KING II, code name for the invasion of Leyte, were composed of the X and XXIV Corps and the 6th Ranger Battalion. The X Corps included the 1st Cavalry Division and the 24th Infantry Division; the XXIV Corps consisted of the 7th and 96th Infantry Divisions.

After the Leyte Philippine Campaign (October 20, 1944) ended, the 226th Field Artillery Battalion continued on and participated in the Okinawa Campaign (June 14, 1945). Filbert’s unit may have gone from Camp Forrest, Tennessee to Fort Oglethorpe Georgia to Fort Sill, Oklahoma to Camp Stoneman, California to Maui to Oahu to Molokai to Eniwetok to Manus to Leyte to Samar and ended up on (Ryukyus) Okinawa in 1945.

Filbert was issued the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, Good Conduct Medal, Philippines Liberation Medal, World War II Victory Medal, and Philippine Liberation Medal and was honorable discharged on November 24, 1945 with the rank of TEC 5. He died in Sacramento on March 31, 1953, and was buried in the military section (Veteran’s Plot) of the City of Sacramento Cemetery.

Lawrence Domingo Marine, Platoon Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Lawrence was the younger brother of Filbert Marine and he was born on May 4, 1919 in Centerville. He was one of the last Muwekma Ohlone Indians to be baptized at Mission San Jose. He was enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his father’s BIA Application # 10677 on March 11, 1932. He was also sent to Indian Boarding School at Sherman Institute, Riverside, California in 1931 and graduated from there in 1939. He also met his future wife Pansy Potts the daughter of renown Maidu leader from the Mountain Maidu Tribe while attending Sherman Institute.

After graduating Sherman Institute, Domingo returned to the Bay Area, and enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps in January 1940 in San Francisco. By December 1, 1940, he was assigned to Headquarters and Service Battery, 1st Battalion, 10th Marine, 2nd Marine Brigade, Fleet Marine Force (FMF), in San Diego before shipping out to the Pacific. By April 1, 1942, Lawrence was promoted to Corporal while stationed at Tutuila, American Samoa. Later by January 1, 1943, Lawrence was promoted to Sergeant while stationed at Guadalcanal while assigned to Headquarters and Service Battery, 1st Battalion, 10th Marine, 8th Marine Reinforced. He was later transferred to Battery “A,” 75mm Gun, 10th Marines, 2nd Marine Division, FMF. In the Field by April 1943. By July 1, 1944, Lawrence was assigned to the Light Anti-Aircraft Group, Eighth Anti-Aircraft Battalion, Corps Artillery, Fifth Amphibious Corps, and later, by October 1, 1944, Lawrence was a Platoon Sergeant, (identified in the Muster rolls as Assistant Platoon Commander, 2nd Platoon, 40 mm Battery) with the Light AntiAircraft Group, Eighth Anti-Aircraft Battalion, Fleet Marine Force, Pacific. From April 1 – April 30, 1945, Lawrence’s unit location and “secret agenda” was on Okinawa, Ryukyus Islands. By January 1 -January 30, 1946, Lawrence’s unit returned to the U.S. and was station on Treasure Island. Lawrence was assigned to the Guard Company Marine Barracks, Treasure Island Activities, San Francisco. He was still classified as a Platoon Sergeant, Sergeant of Guard.

Lawrence D. Marine’s unit was engaged in the following major battles, engagements, and ports from January 2, 1942 – November 8, 1945: Hawaiian Islands Area, American Samoan Islands, Wellington, New Zealand, Guadalcanal, B.S.I (British Solomon Islands, New Georgia), Tarawa Atoll. Saipan, Tinian, Eniwetok, Marshall Islands, Ulithi, Caroline Islands, Okinawa, and Ryukyus (southern Japanese Islands). The Battle of Eniwetok was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought February 17, 1944 - February 23, 1944 on Eniwetok Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

The invasion of Eniwetok followed the American success in the battle of Kwajalein to the southeast. Capture of Eniwetok would provide an airfield and harbor to support attacks on the Mariana Islands to the northwest. Battle of Okinawa was the largest amphibious invasion of the Pacific campaign and the last major campaign of the Pacific War. More ships were used, more troops put ashore, more supplies transported, more bombs dropped, more naval guns fired against shore targets than any other operation in the Pacific. The fleet had lost 763 aircraft. Casualties totaled more than 38,000 Americans wounded and 12,000 [including nearly 5,000 Navy dead and almost 8,000 Marine and Army dead killed or missing], more than 107,000 Japanese and Okinawan conscripts killed, and perhaps 100,000 Okinawan civilians who perished in the battle.

Lawrence Domingo Marine was honorable discharged at Treasure Island on November 20, 1946 after having an extended two-year reenlistment. He received the Presidential Unit Citation, Good Conduct Medal, and Good Conduct Medal Bar No. (1), Honorable Discharge Button, Honorable Service Button. Lawrence Marine enrolled during the second BIA enrollment period on October 12, 1950. He passed away on May 21, 1988 and was buried in Woodland, California.

Henry Vernon Marshall, Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps was born in Newark on June 27, 1924. He was the son of Muwekma Ohlone Indian Henry Marshall, Sr. who was the son of Magdalena Armija Marshall Thompson. Henry Marshall, Jr. was a member of the Verona band of Alameda County. His grandmother, Magdalena enrolled her children with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on October 7, 1930 (BIA Application # 10296). Henry Marshall, Jr. enlisted on May 19, 1942 in the United States Marine Corps (#394908) and was later assigned to the 1st Marine Division (Guadalcanal). From on-line Muster Rolls USMC: May-July assigned to Aircraft Engineering Squadron Twenty-Three, Airbg-2; April 30, 1943, Private Henry Marshall, Jr. assigned to Ground Defense, Headquarters Squadron, Marine Aircraft Group Eleven (MAG 11), First Marine Aircraft Wing, Fleet Marine Fleet, On October 1, 1944 as a Corporal, he was assigned to the MOS 659 (INSTRUCTOR - Designated Specialty Rockets) 13, jdfr (Joined from USMC), HqSq (Headquarters and Service Squadron), MFairWest (Marine Fleet Air), NAS, San Diego; Corporal, April 1945 classified as a Drill Instructor assigned to the Marine Air Control Squadron 5 (MACS5).

MAG-11 became the Air-Defense Group for the San Diego, California area, based at Camp Kearny. During this interim pre-deployment period, MAG-11 served as the nucleus of four new air groups destined for combat action in the Pacific. MAG-11 embarked for the South Pacific on 15 October 1942 on the SS Lurline (Mumu). They left with no planes and were expected to fly what they found in the Pacific. Squadrons from MAG-11, such as VMSB-132 and VMF-112 landed on Guadalcanal in early November and were among the first to relieve the tired original aviators of the Cactus Air Force. Arriving at Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides Islands, the group launched offensive actions against enemy strongholds, air power, and shipping in the Solomon Islands. During World War II, MAG-11 participated in combat action in the Solomon Islands, New Britain, Palau, Central Pacific Areas, and the Philippines. At the close of World War II, MAG-11 was based on the island of Peleliu, Palaus Group, where it remained until January 1946.

Henry Marshall, Jr. fought in the Pacific Theater of Operations including Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, New Georgia, Bismarck Archipelago, Treasury-Bougainville, Western Carolinas, and was issued the Navy Presidential Unit Citation with one Bronze Star, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, Rifle Sharpshooter Badge, and a three-tiered Weapons(?) qualifying badge. He attained the rank of Sergeant, 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, by January 1946, and was honorably discharged on May 19, 1946. Henry Marshall, Jr. passed away on September 24, 1986 in Alameda County. His father later enrolled the family during the third BIA enrollment period on May 7, 1969 as part of the California Indian Claims Judgment. Henry passed away on September 24, 1986.

Arthur M. Pena, Sergeant, U.S. Army, Company A, 155th Engineers Combat Battalion, Pacific Theater. Arthur was born in Crockett, California on September 24, 1924. His mother was Erolinda Santos (Juarez/Saunders) Pena Corral who was a member of the Muwekma Ohlone Verona Band Indian Community. Arthur was enrolled along with his mother and siblings with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his great-aunt Maggie Pinos Juarez’s BIA Application # 10676 on March 18, 1932. Prior to WWII, Arthur was working for Southern Pacific Railroad.

Arthur Pena registered with the draft board on December 21, 1942, and enlisted in the army on April 13, 1943 at the San Francisco Presidio, and served in the unattached 155th Engineering Combat Battalion in the Pacific Theater. He served in the Southern Philippines and Western Pacific Campaigns (Leyte October 17, 1944 – July 1, 1945, and Western Pacific June 15, 1944 – September 2, 1945), and his battalion was sent to Guadalcanal (August 12 – August 24, 1944). From Guadalcanal, the battalion went on to Palau, Ulithi, New Caledonia (February 20, 1945), Southern Philippines (May 16, 1945), and Japan (September 8, 1944 – September 25, 1945).

Arthur Pena was honorably discharged at Camp Beale, Marysville, California on February 2, 1946, and he was issued the Philippines Liberation Ribbon, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, American Campaign Medal, Good Conduct Medal and World War II Victory Medal. He reenlisted on August 7, 1946 and served in Germany in Company C 793rd Military Police Battalion, and he also went through the European Command Intelligence School. He was honorably discharged on March 25, 1955, and then reenlisted again on March 26, 1955. After serving another two years, Arthur was discharged at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri on December 9, 1957. Arthur was also issued the UN Service Medal, National Defense Service Medal, and Army of Occupation Germany Medal. On December 27, 1957, he enrolled his family with the Bureau of Indian Affairs during the second enrollment period.

Robert P. Corral, U.S. Army, Pfc. Infantry, Head Quarters Regiment, Ft. Benning, GA. Robert was born in Crockett, California on June 1, 1926 and was the younger brother of Arthur Pena. His mother was Erolinda Santos (Juarez/Saunders) Pena Corral who was a member of the Muwekma Ohlone Verona Band Indian Community. Robert was enrolled along with his mother and siblings with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on his great-aunt Maggie Pinos Juarez’s BIA Application # 10676 on March 18, 1932, identifying their tribe as Mission San Jose.

Robert enlisted at the San Francisco Presidio on December 18, 1944 and was honorably discharged on November 13, 1946. At Fort Benning, Georgia. Robert completed six parachute jumps and was awarded a Parachutist Badge, World War II Victory Medal, Good Conduct Medal, and American Campaign Medal. On May 16, 1955 Robert enrolled himself and his family during the second BIA enrollment period. During the third BIA enrollment period on April 30, 1969, Robert enrolled his family as “Ohlone Indians” with the BIA as part of the California Indian Claims Judgment (Application # 21123). During the 1990s Robert P. Corral served as on the Muwekma Ohlone Tribal Elders Council, and he later passed away on June 28, 1996 in Stockton and was buried in the Veteran’s Section of the San Joaquin Catholic Cemetery.

Enos Marine Sanchez, Pfc. U.S. Army, 89th Division, 1st Battalion, Co. M, 354th Infantry Regiment. Enos Sanchez was born on February 1, 1910 near the Alisal Rancheria in Sunol, and his birth certificate identified him as “California Indian.” Enos and his younger siblings were enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on March 18, 1932 (BIA Application # 10680). He along with his mother Ramona Marine Sanchez, and siblings were members of the Federally Recognized Verona Band of Alameda County.

Before enlisting in the Army, Enos worked at many CCC camps and he belonged to Local 3, Engineer Operator’s Union. Enos enlisted on June 29, 1942 in Sacramento and was shipped out to Camp Carson, Colorado Springs, and later transferred to Arizona and Texas for training. He then served in Greenland and Iceland. Afterwards he was assigned to Patton’s 3rd Army, Tank Division as a heavy machine gunner in North Africa and briefly in Sicily. Leaving Patton’s tank division, his outfit landed in LeHarve and Normandy.

The 89th Division was called the “Rolling W” standing for MW (Middle West). After landing at Le Harve, France, the 89th received orders to move into Mersch, Luxembourg (March 8, 1945). The 89th was assigned to the XII Corps of General Patton’s Third Army.

Crossing into Germany the 89th met the German 2nd Panzer Division and seven Volksgrenadier Divisions and by March 26, 1945, the 89th crossed the Rhine River. Enos’ Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) was a Heavy Machine Gunner (605). On April 4, 1945, the 4th Armored and the 89th Infantry Divisions were involved in the liberation of the Ohrdruf Death Camp, which was part of the Buchenwald concentration camp network. It was the first Nazi concentration camp liberated by the U.S. Army.

Enos’ unit fought in the Rhineland and Central Europe (GO WO WD 45) Campaigns and he was awarded the Combat Infantry Badge (31), Good Conduct Medal, American Campaign Medal, European, African, Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal (TWX WD 23 Oct 45), and Marksman M1 Rifle Sep 42 (55).

Enos Sanchez was honorable discharged on November 15, 1945 and separated at Camp Beale, California. In 1965 Enos was identified along with his family and fellow Tribal members by the American Indian Historical Society on a list of “Ohlone Contacts and Ohlone Members”. He died on July 19, 1995 at the age of 85 and was buried at the Calvary Cemetery in San Jose California.

Robert R. Sanchez, U.S. Army, Technician Fourth Grade, 7th Co. 508th Prcht. Infantry, 82nd Airborne Division. Robert Sanchez was the younger brother of Enos Sanchez, and he was born in Sunol near the Alisal Rancheria on March 26, 1917. Robert and his siblings were enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on March 18, 1932 (BIA Application # 10680).

Robert enlisted in October 1942, and he volunteered to join the 82nd Airborne Division, 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment. On June 5-6, 1944, the paratroopers of the 82nd's three parachute infantry regiments and reinforced glider infantry regiment boarded hundreds of transport planes and gliders and, began the largest airborne assault in history. They were among the first soldiers to fight in Normandy, France.

The Division air-assaulted behind Utah Beach, Normandy, France, between Saint Mere Eglise and Carentan on June 6, 1944, being reinforced by the 325th Glider Regiment the next day. The 82nd Airborne Division was reinforced by both the attached 507th PIR and the 508th PIR.

The 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment (a.k.a. the Red Devils) whose battle cry was “Diablo!” was originally an organic part of the 2nd (Battalion) Airborne Infantry Brigade that was attached to the 82nd Airborne Division through most of its time in combat. Campaigns include Normandy (D-Day June 6, 1944), Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace (France), and Central Europe (NijmegenArnhem Holland, and Belgium).

By July 1945, the 82nd Airborne was moved to Berlin to occupy the American Sector. The 508th which had fought alongside the 82nd since Normandy was sent to occupy Frankfort, Germany. For his service in the 508th PIR, Robert Sanchez was issued the Distinguished (Presidential) Unit Citation, Combat Infantry Badge, Parachute Badge, European Africa and Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Army of Occupation Medal (Berlin), Belgian Citation (Lanyard) and French Citation (Lanyard).

The 82nd Airborne Division and the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment were issued the Distinguished (Presidential) Unit Citations for actions during the Normandy Campaign. "The 508th Parachute Infantry is cited for outstanding performance of duty in action against the enemy between 6 and 9 of June 1944, during the invasion of France. … The courage and devotion to duty shown by members of the 508th Parachute Infantry are worthy of emulation and reflect the highest traditions of the Army of the United States.” The Netherlands Citation was issued by the Dutch Government to the 82nd Airborne and its attached divisions (508th PIR) on October 8, 1945 for airborne operations and combat actions in the central part of the Netherlands (Nijmegen) during the period from September 17, 1944 to October 4, 1944. The 82nd Airborne Division became the first non-Dutch military unit to be awarded the Militarie Willems Orde, Degree of Knight Fourth Class to wear the Orange Lanyard of the Royal Netherlands Army.

The Belgian Citation (Lanyard) was issued by the Belgian Government to the 82nd Airborne Division with the 508th Parachute Infantry attached “has distinguished itself particularly in the Battle of the Ardennes” from December 17, 1944 – December 31, 1944. The French Citation (Lanyard) was issued to the 508th Parachute Infantry by the Government of France. “The President of the Provisional Government of the French Republic Cites to the Order of the Army: 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment: A magnificent unit, reputed for the heroism and spirit of sacrifice of its combatants and which made proof of the greatest military qualities during the battle of Normandy” (June 6, 1944 – June 20, 1944). This citation includes the award of the Croix de Guerre with Palm.

O. B. Hill from the 508th P.I.R. Association, 82nd Airborne Division wrote: “2,056 men of the 508th Parachute Infantry Regiment (attached to the 82nd Airborne) jumped into Normandy on D-Day, and on July 15, 1,918 returned. The rest had been killed, captured or wounded”.

Robert Sanchez was honorably discharged on February 2, 1948 and spent most his life in the greater Bay Area. Robert Sanchez was one of the early prime movers and active Elders in the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe. He passed away on April 26, 1999.

Daniel G. Juarez (Santos), Technical Sergeant, U.S. Army, 41st Division – 1941-1945. Daniel Juarez (Saunders/Santos) was born in Sunol near the Alisal Rancheria on January 21, 1917. Both his parents Joseph Armija Garcia Saunders and Erolinda Santos were members of the Verona Band of Alameda County. Daniel was enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs along with his mother and siblings under his great-aunts’ BIA Application (# 10676) on March 18, 1932.

Daniel Juarez (Santos) received a draft notice dated March 14, 1941, from Local Board No. 36 located in Manteca, California. It was addressed to Mr. Dan George Juarez, Route, Box 29A, Tracy, California. The letter stated:

We received a call for 70 men to be inducted from this area on March 27th 1941. … it is probable that you will be included in the group, and we are therefore taking this opportunity of notifying you, before (?) official order is issued, so that you may make your plans accordingly.

Daniel enlisted on March 27, 1941 at Sacramento before war was declared. The Jungleer or Sunset Division was Federalized on September 16, 1940. By December 7, 1941, the 41st Division was ready. It continued the series of "firsts" by being the first United States Division to deploy to the South Pacific. It became the first American Division sent overseas after Pearl Harbor, the first American Division trained in Jungle Warfare.

The 41st spent 45 months overseas (longer than any other Division), and earned the title of "Jungleers". The 41st Division left for Australia in March of 1942. Elements of the division landed January 23, 1943 in Dobodura, New Guinea. On the Island of Biak (May 27, 1944) the American Forces fought the first tank battle of the war against the Japanese destroying seven without loss. The division also fought in the Philippines (January 9, 1945) and fought on Palawan and Sulu Archipelago (March 10, 1945) and arrived in Japan on October 6, 1945. The 41st participated in 3 campaigns (New Guinea, Luzon, and Southern Philippines) and suffered 4,260 casualties.

Former Secretary of Defense Caspar W. Weinberger also served in the 41st Division as an officer. The 41st Division earned three Distinguished (Presidential) Unit Citations. Daniel Juarez Santos was honorably discharged on June 8, 1945. Daniel enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs during the second BIA enrollment period on May 23, 1955. He also worked at Leslie Salt Company in Newark and spent his life working on and racing cars. Daniel Juarez passed away on April 28, 1980.

Lawrence Thompson, Sr., TEC Fifth Grade, U.S. Army, 640th Tank Destroyer Battalion. Lorenzo Thompson, Sr. was born in Newark September 9, 1918. His mother Magdalena Armija Thompson and her children were members of the Verona Band of Alameda County. Lawrence and his siblings enrolled with their mother with the Bureau of Indian Affairs on October 7, 1930 (BIA Application # 10296).

The 640th Tank Destroyer Battalion was formed at Camp San Luis Obispo on December 19, 1941 as an element of the 40th Infantry Division, and served in the Pacific Theater of Operation. The 640th was activated on March 3, 1941 from National Guard Divisions from California and Utah and was sent overseas on August 23, 1942.

The 640th Campaigns included: Bismarck Archipelago, Southern Philippines, and Luzon and were issued 3 Distinguished Unit Citations; Awards: MH-1; DSC-12; DSM-1; SS-245; LM-21; SM-30; BSM-1,036; AM-57.

Lawrence Thompson enlisted at the age of 23 on September 10, 1941 at the San Francisco Presidio. At that time, he was living at 2370 Pine St. in San Francisco. His MOS was Cannons S45 and he fought in the following campaigns: Aleutian Islands [Attu and Kiska Island with the 7th Infantry Division], Luzon and Southern Philippines and Eastern Mandates [Marshall Islands, Kwajalein, Eniwetok]. Initially deployed to Hawaii in September 1942, the 640th Tank Destroyer Battalion participated in combat landings at Guadalcanal (February 5, 1944), Cape Glouster, New Britain (May 3, 1944), Lingayen Gulf, Luzon, Commonwealth of the Philippines (January 9, 1945), and Los Negros Islands (March 29, 1945). The 640th Tank Destroyer Campaign Honors include: Bismarck Archipelago [islands of New Guinea] (December 15, 1943 – November 27, 1944), and Luzon and Southern Philippines [GO 33 WD 45] (December 15, 1944 – July 4, 1945). “Seek, Strike, and Destroy" was the motto of the Tank Destroyers.

Lawrence Thompson was honorably discharged on October 2, 1945 at Camp Beale, Marysville, California, and was issued the American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal and Philippine Liberation Ribbon with Bronze Star.

After the war, Lawrence Thompson, Sr. and his son Lawrence Thompson, Jr. enrolled with the Bureau of Indian Affairs during the third BIA enrollment period on June 24, 1969. Later during the early 1990s Lawrence, Sr. served on the Muwekma Tribal Council. He passed away in November 1999.

George James (Guzman) Hernandez was born in Niles on November 13, 1923 to Muwekma Indian Candeliana (Carolyn/Carrie) Guzman Hernandez (born March 12, 1905) who was the daughter of Muwekma Elder Francisca Guzman Nonessa (BIA #10293) and Manuel Hernandez. Manuel Hernandez was working for Elbert Apperson (he brother of Phoebe Apperson Hearst) during the early 1900s while living on Glenn Avenue in Sunol (1920 Federal Census). Candeliana Guzman Hernandez was the half-sister of Toney and Fred Guzman.

George enlisted on September 12, 1945 at Camp Beale, Marysville, California, and attained the rank of Private in the United States Army, he was discharged from the service on July 2, 1946. On his June 30, 1942 Draft Registration Card he identified Paul Guzman (Hernandez) as his uncle and that he worked on the W. Walton Ranch in Centerville (now the City of Fremont) which was the same employer of his uncle Toney Guzman. He was the nephew of Toney and Fred Guzman, and first cousin to Frank Harry and Bennie Guzman.

George died in the Town of Middleton, Lake County on June 26, 1995 and was buried in the Golden Gate National Cemetery, Section K, Site 631

Muwekma Service in the United States Armed Forces During the 1950s, Viet Nam War, Desert Storm, Iraq, and Currently Serving

During the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s Muwekma men served in Korea, Viet-Nam and elsewhere.

Candelario T. Martinez of the Marine-Sanchez lineage was the eldest son of Muwekma Verona Band member Dolores Sanchez. Candelario had served in the United States Marine Corps during the Korean War

Ruben Cota Arellano, Sr. of the Marine-Arellano lineage was the son of Muwekma Verona Band member Albert Arellano. He was a Corporal in the U.S. Army, Medical Corps, SP4 E4 HQ Battery 1st TGT ACQ Battalion, 25th Artillery, APO 2, July 5, 1960 – July 4, 1966, Korea.

Lawrence Mason Marine of the Guzman-Peralta-Marine-Potts lineage. He was the son of Muwekma Verona Band member WWII veteran Lawrence D. Marine and Maidu tribal member Pansy Potts. Lawrence served in the United States Marine Corps from 1959-1965, and was a Staff Sergeant serving in Viet-Nam, 3rd Marine Division, 3rd Tank Battalion, and in 3rd Force Reconnaissance, Charlie Company (Viet-Nam) from 1960-1961. Muwekma Elder Lawrence Mason Marine and his family are enrolled members of the Muwekma Tribe. Lawrence also served on the Muwekma Tribal Council, he recently passed away in December 2020.

Marvin Lee Marine (younger brother of Lawrence Mason Marine) of the Guzman-PeraltaMarine-Potts lineage. Marvin Lee is the son of Muwekma Verona Band member WWII veteran Lawrence D. Marine and Maidu tribal member Pansy Potts. He served as a PFC (E3) in the Vietnam War in the U.S. Army’s 173rd Airborne Division from October 25, 1967 to October 24, 1969. He reenlisted in the Army and was honorably discharged on October 24, 1973. His last assignment was with Battery E 78th Artillery. Marvin Lee Marine was issued the National Defense Service Medal, Vietnam Service Medal, Vietnam Campaign Medal, and Marksman (Rifle) Badge.

Karl Thompson, of the Armija-Thompson lineage. He is the son of Verona Band member George Ernest Thompson. Karl attained the rank of SP5, U.S. Army, 43rd Engineer Bn. 931st Eng. Gp. Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal (Korea), May 8, 1968 – May 7, 1971.

Frank Y. Ruano, Sr., of the Marine-Elston/Thompson/Ruano lineage. He is the son of Verona Band member Trina Marine Elston Thompson Ruano. Frank attained the rank of E4, U.S. Army, 56th Artillery, 1965 – July 25, 1971, Vietnam.

Thomas Joseph Marshall of the Armija-Marshall-Thompson lineage. He was the son of Verona Band member Henry N. Marshall, Sr. He was born in Niles, on June 21, 1953 and passed away on February 14, 1996. Thomas served in the U.S. Army, Vietnam Era). No Photo or service record available).

Tom M. Alvarez, Sr., of the Marine-Alvarez/Galvan lineage. His is the son of Verona Band member and WWII veteran Hank Alvarez. U.S. Army, Medical Corps, 1965 – 1967, Vietnam, recipient of Soldier's Medal.

Robert C. Martinez, Sr., of the Marine-Sanchez lineage. He is the son of Verona Band member Margaret Sanchez Martinez. Robert attained the rank of Sergeant, served in the Air Cavalry, 14th Armored Cavalry Regiment U.S. Army, European, 7th Army Command, May 22, 1968 – May 14, 1970.

Ricardo “Rick” Martinez, of the Marine-Sanchez lineage. He is the son of Verona Band member Margaret Sanchez Martinez. Rick attained the rank of SP 5 (T) Sergeant, Company D, 69th Engineer Battalion, USARPAC Vietnam; National Defense Service Medal, Vietnam Service Medal, Vietnam Campaign Medal and Good Conduct Medal; January 26, 1967 – January 12, 1969, Reenlisted in the Army and Honorably discharged January 24, 1973.

John A. Massiatt, of the Marine-Munoz lineage. John is the grandson of Verona Band member Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta. John was an Airman, U.S. Air Force, served from January 1, 1968 - October 1, 1969

Wayne Gibson, Vietnam, of the Armija-Marshall-Thompson lineage. Wayne is the grandson of Verona Band member Henry N. Marshall. He served in the US Army 1969-1971, 4th Infantry Division. In August 1966, led by the 2nd Brigade, the 4th Infantry Division’s (“Ivy Division”— a play on the Roman numeral IV) headquarters closed in on the central highlands of Vietnam. On September 25, 1966, the division began a combat assignment against the North Vietnamese that would not end until December 7, 1970. By the time the 4 th Infantry Division completed their assignment in Vietnam and returned to Fort Carson, Colorado, at the end of 1970, some 2,497 soldiers had been killed, and 15,229 had been wounded. Eleven 4 th Infantry Division soldiers earned the Medal of Honor during that period.

Richard A. Juarez, of the Santos-Piños/Juarez/Colos/Armija lineage. He is the grandson of Verona Band member Erolinda Santos Saunders Juarez Pena Corral. SP 4 – E-4, U.S. Army, 589th Transportation Co., Co. B 4H BN 2D BCT BDE, 1st Army, Fort Eustis, Virginia., served from January 25, 1971 – October 30, 1973.

JayP Massiet, of the Marine-Munoz lineage, JayP is the grandson of Verona Band member Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta. JayP attained the rank of E5/Staff Sergeant, Military Police, U.S. Air Force Van Nuys Air National Guard, June 1975 – January 1988

Michael F. Galvan, Jr., of the Marine-Alvarez/Galvan and Marine-Munoz lineages. Michael is the grandson of Verona Band member Dolores Marine Alvarez Galvan and grandson Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta. Michael attained the rank of Sergeant, U.S. Air Force, 95th Recon Squadron, 1977 – 1997, and served in the Desert Storm Campaign.

Tracie Massiet Lents, of the Marine-Munoz lineage. She is the granddaughter of Verona Band member Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta. Tracie served in the U.S. Air Force, 1979 – 1983.
Paul Guzman of the Marine-Munoz-Guzman lineage (Service Records n/a)

John J. Cambra, Jr., of the Marine-Sanchez lineage. He is the grandson of Verona Band member Dolores Sanchez. John was a Pfc. U.S. Army Company C, 4th Battalion 30th Infantry Regiment, and Company B, 2nd Battalion 159th Infantry, 1991 – 1994

avid J. Splan, of the Santos-Piños/Juarez/Colos/Armija lineage. David is the grandson of Verona Band member Alfonso Juarez. David attained the rank of Lance Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps, 1993 – 2001

JayP Massiet, Jr. of the Marine-Munoz lineage. He is great-grandson of Verona Band member Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta. JayP, Jr. served in the U.S. Army, Second Tour in Iraq; Purple Heart recipient.

Cory Gumersindo Massiet, of the Marine-Munoz lineage. Cory is the great-grandson of Verona Band member Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta. Cory attained the rank of 1st Class, Airman, U.S. Air Force, 1994 – 1997. Separated Edwards Air Force Base, Ca. Awards: Air Force Training Ribbon, National Defense Service Medal, Humanitarian Service Medal.

Jesse Calles, of the Marine-Elston/Thompson/Ruano lineage, Jesse is the great-grandson of Verona Band member Trina Marine Elston Thompson Ruano. US Army, November 2004- December 2009, Specialist Grade 4, Field Artillery Automated Tactical Data Systems Specialist. who served the U.S. Army in Baghdad, Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom) since December 2005 in the Headquarters and Headquarters Battery Fires Brigade, 4th Infantry Division (Mechanized), Awarded the Army Commendation Medal (2006).

Angela Galvan, of the Marine-Alvarez/Galvan and Marine-Munoz lineages. She is greatgranddaughter of Verona Band member Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta, and granddaughter of Verona Band member WWII veteran Ben Michael Galvan, and daughter of Desert Storm Veteran Michael Galvan. Angela had served in Iraq in the U.S. Marine Corps, Corporal/E-4, 1st Marine Logistics Group, 7th Engineer Support Battalion, Support Company Motor Transportation Platoon, May 27, 2003 – She had served in Iraq (twice deployed). Campaigns and Citations: OIF 2 Fallujah Campaign in Feb 2004 - Sept 2004 and OIF 3-6 Sept 2005 - Mar 2006, Combat Action Ribbon for operations on Michigan ASR (Alternative Supply Route) and an impact Navy Marine Corps Achievement Medal for operations in Haditha (December 2005); also involved during OIF February 3-6, 2004.

Aaron Lenci, of the Marine-Elston/Thompson/Ruano lineage. He is great-grandson of Verona Band member Trina Marine Elston Thompson Ruano. Aaron enlisted in the US Navy, rank Ensign, stationed at Pensacola Naval Air Station (Currently Serving).

David Marroquin, Jr., of the Marine-Alvarez/Galvan and Marine-Munoz lineages. He is great-grandson of Verona Band member Mary Munoz Mora Ramos Medina Archuleta, and grandson of Verona Band member WWII veteran Ben Michael Galvan. David enlisted in the California Air National Guard, Airman 1st Class (Currently Serving).

Author's bio

Alan Leventhal is a trained archaeologist/anthropologist/ethnohistorian. During the early 1970s, he worked at the American Museum of Natural History in New York in the departments of Anthropology and Education. Mr. Leventhal completed his undergraduate degree in Anthropology at City College of New York, and did graduate work at San Jose State University. He had also worked as a state archaeologist at the Nevada Archaeological Survey in University of Nevada, Reno, and taught classes there.

In 1978, Alan briefly worked as a Forest Service archaeologist in the Lassen National Forest before coming to San Jose State University in 1978 where he spent nine years in the Department of Anthropology as the Anthropology Lab Director.

Alan completed his Master’s Degree at SJSU in Social Sciences with an emphasis in Anthropology/Archaeology. His thesis is titled A Reinterpretation of Some Bay Area Shellmound Sites: A View from the Mortuary Complex from CA-ALA-329, the Ryan Mound. He is also the author of numerous publications on Bay Area prehistory, California Indian ethnohistory, ancient and modern Native American DNA, that include analyzes of stone tool assemblages spanning 12,000 years of human history in the S.F. Bay Area. He has also worked with the Muwekma Ohlone Tribal leadership on the Indian Neophyte Cemetery at the Third Mission Santa Clara (1781-1818), and more recently on a Pre-Contact to Proto-Contact Period ancestral Muwekma Ohlone cemetery site in Sunol.

On July 1, 2019, Alan had retired from SJSU where he worked on the administrative staff in the Office of the Dean, College of Social Sciences, and taught as a lecturer about contemporary Native American Issues, and topics on advanced methods and theory in archaeology in the Anthropology Department. He has lectured and conducted archaeological investigations in New York, Georgia, Nevada, and California.

For the past 42 years, he has worked with the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Region as a tribal ethnohistorian and senior archaeologist. He has also researched tribal genealogies through the federal censuses and mission records, as well as on the history of California Indian military service spanning all the major theaters from WWI through the recent conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan. Mr. Leventhal had also worked as a volunteer (1992-1998) on the Congressionally created (HR 2144) Advisory Council on California Indian Policy’s Federal Recognition Task Force, and was one of the few advocates for the Previously Federally Recognized Tribes in California.

Mr. Leventhal has also worked closely with other tribes throughout California as they seek federal restoration and reaffirmation of their tribal status. Mr. Leventhal has also served as an ethnohistorian and archaeologist for two other previously Federally Recognized tribes: Amah– Mutsun Tribal Band of Costanoan Indians centered around Mission San Juan Bautista (since 1989), and Ohlone-Costanoan/Esselen Nation centered around Mission San Carlos in Monterey (since 1992)